Glossary

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DALY (Disability-adjusted life year)

Years of healthy life lost to premature (early) death and disability (illness). DALYs are the sum of years of life lost (YLLs) and years lived with disability (YLDs). (DALYs are higher when young people die compared with when old people die, because young people still had many years ahead of them.)

DALY rate

The ratio of disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) to the population (number of people) of a particular area during a particular period of time. It is calculated in the GBD project as the number of DALYs per 100,000 people per year.

Death rate

The ratio of deaths to the population (number of people) of a particular area during a particular period of time. It is calculated in the GBD project as the number of deaths per 100,000 people per year.

Diabetes

Diabetes is a chronic disease caused by the inherited and/or acquired deficiency in production of insulin by the pancreas or by the ineffectiveness of the insulin produced. Such a deficiency results in increased concentrations of glucose in the blood, which in turn damage many of the body’s systems, in particular the blood vessels and nerves. The most common types of diabetes are type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes. Air pollution burden is estimated for type 2 diabetes.